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   2020| January-April  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 23, 2019

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Alterations of mitochondria and related metabolic pathways in leukemia: A narrative review
Essam Al Ageeli
January-April 2020, 8(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_112_18  PMID:31929772
Dysregulation of mitochondrial function often precedes malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Mitochondria have a direct role in the maintenance of HSC functions. For example, D-2-hydroxyglutarate, generated due to the activity of mutated mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia. Furthermore, disturbances in the fatty acid breakdown and pyruvate oxidation are often seen in leukemic cells. These and other abnormalities expedite leukemogenesis and chemoresistance of leukemic cells. However, it needs to be elucidated whether these aberrations are the result or cause of leukemogenesis. Accordingly, for this review, a search was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar databases until June 2019 to assess the relationship between metabolic pathways in altered mitochondria and leukemia development. In the present review, an overview of mitochondria-related mechanisms and their abnormalities in leukemia is presented, with mitochondrial pathways and factors, such as mitophagy, intermediary metabolism enzymes, oncometabolites and reactive oxygen species' generation, discussed as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in leukemia.
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Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in classifying thyroid nodules compared with fine-needle aspiration
Ibrahim Abobaker Al-Ghanimi, Abdulaziz Mohammad Al-Sharydah, Saqar Al-Mulhim, Sarah Faisal, Abdulrahman Al-Abdulwahab, Mohammed Al-Aftan, Abdulrahman Abuhaimed
January-April 2020, 8(1):25-31
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_126_18  PMID:31929775
Background: Classifying thyroid lesions is challenging; nonetheless, using ultrasonography may allow for accurate diagnosis, differentiation and management of thyroid lesions and help avoid unnecessary biopsy. Objectives: The main objective of the study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in classifying thyroid nodules compared with fine-needle aspiration. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included all 68 patients diagnosed with thyroid nodules at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 1, 2014, and November 30, 2016. Parameters were selected based on the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound criteria. Ultrasonographic features, namely, nodule margins, echotexture, vascularity and calcifications, and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to each other's findings and validated by another experienced interventional radiologist. Ultrasonography results were compared against that of FNAC to calculate sensitivity and positive- and negative-likelihood ratios, and the nodule types were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 68 nodules analyzed, 59 were reported as benign using FNAC (specificity = 95%; P &< 0.001). Of these 59, 56 were also reported as benign using ultrasonography. The specificity of ultrasonography in determining benign nodules was 94.9%, and the positive- and negative-likelihood ratios were 13.0 and 0.35, respectively. Six of the nine suspicious nodules were confirmed as malignant using FNAC, and the ultrasonography and FNAC findings were strongly associated (P = 0.001). According to the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound criteria, FNAC and ultrasonography findings were significantly associated for nodule calcification (P = 0.001) and echogenicity (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The diagnostic specificity of ultrasonography and FNAC in this study are consistent with those reported previously, indicating that ultrasonography reliably classifies thyroid nodules, and thus can assist in the decision-making regarding need for biopsy.
  2,019 330 -
Curcumin-loaded mesoporous silica particles as wound-healing agent: An In vivo study
Fayez Hamam, Abdulrahman Nasr
January-April 2020, 8(1):17-24
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_2_19  PMID:31929774
Background: Curcumin likely has wound-healing properties, but its poor pharmacokinetic attributes inhibit its potential. To overcome these limitations, a novel nanoformulation was previously developed, wherein curcumin was loaded into mesoporous silica particles. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess the efficiency of this nanocurcumin formulation as a wound-healing agent in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Curcumin was loaded onto mesoporous silica particles. Eighteen healthy, test-naive male Wistar rats were randomly separated into two groups of 9: Group 1 (control) rats were treated topically with a standard drug (sulfadiazine) and Group 2 with 1% curcumin formulation. A circular excision wound was made, and topical application was performed twice a day. The excision diameters were measured on days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of treatment. Three rats from each group were sacrificed on days 7, 14 and 21, and a cross-section from skin specimen in the excision injury was obtained for histological assessment of inflammation, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, presence of collagen and reepithelization. Results: Wound contraction percentage in rats treated with curcumin nanoformulation was nonsignificantly higher than that in the control group (P > 0.05). In both groups, inflammatory reactions considerably reduced by day 21 of treatment, the angiogenesis process was almost complete by day 7, fibroblast proliferation noticeably rose by day 14, and a high degree of wound reepithelization was achieved by day 21, with no significant differences between the groups. Interestingly, by day 21, the level of collagen significantly increased in curcumin nanoformulation-treated rats compared with those treated with sulfadiazine. Conclusions: Curcumin nanoformulation likely enhanced wound repair by inhibiting the inflammatory response, stimulating angiogenesis, inducing fibroblast proliferation as well as enhancing reepithelization and synthesis of collagen. Therefore, the curcumin nanoformulation used in this study may have potential as a wound-healing ethnomedicine.
  1,565 319 1
Efficacy and efficiency of papacarie versus conventional method in caries removal in primary teeth: An SEM study
Jehan AlHumaid
January-April 2020, 8(1):41-45
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_104_18  PMID:31929777
Background: Chemomechanical methods such as Papacarie were developed as alternate dental caries removal methods to overcome major disadvantages of the conventional drilling technique. However, few studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Papacarie for caries removal using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and efficiency of Papacarie and the conventional bur method in caries removal from primary teeth. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 freshly extracted, human primary molars with dentinal caries were obtained from the outpatient clinics at the Dental Hospital of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally into two halves through the center of the lesion, and each half was randomly subjected to caries removal by Papacarie (Group I) and excavation using the conventional bur method (Group II). Time taken (efficiency) for removal of caries was noted using a stopwatch. Samples were then examined under SEM for presence of bacterial colonies (efficacy). For efficiency, data were analyzed using chi-square, and for efficacy, using t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the presence of bacteria in both groups under SEM (Papacarie = 23.3%; conventional method = 16.7%; P = 0.52). However, significantly more time was taken for caries removal with Papacarie (mean = 351.56 s) than with the conventional bur method (mean = 158.41 s) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Papacarie is as effective in removing dentinal bacteria as the conventional caries removal method but is less efficient, as the time taken for excavation was longer.
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Dynamic thiol/disulfide balance in patients with seborrheic dermatitis: A case–control study
Selma Emre, Göknur Kalkan, Serpil Erdoǧan, Aktaş Akta, Merve Ergin
January-April 2020, 8(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_50_19  PMID:31929773
Background: Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease, in which many endogenous and exogenous factors play a role. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress increases in these patients. The role of the dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis, an important component of the oxidative stress, in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis has not yet been investigated. Objectives: The objective was to investigate the relationship between the dynamic thiol/disulfide balance in the plasma of seborrheic dermatitis patients and disease severity. Methods: In this case–control study, 70 seborrheic dermatitis patients and 61 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was calculated from venous blood samples, and tests were performed by automated spectrophotometric method. The thiol/disulfide balance between the patient and control groups was compared. In addition, disease severity and other demographic characteristics and thiol/disulfide balance parameters were compared. Results: Native and total thiols were significantly higher in the patient group than that in the control group (P < 0.001). Disulfide levels were nonsignificantly lower in the patient group than controls (P = 0.821). Patients' age and age at the onset of disease were found to have a negative correlation with native and total thiol levels. Conclusion: Higher levels of thiols in the serum may be responsible for the increased proliferation of seborrheic dermatitis lesions. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the correlation between thiol/disulfide homeostasis in patients with seborrheic dermatitis.
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Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and its effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Lagos, Nigeria
Bernice Enobong Udoh, Bamidele Abiodun Iwalokun, Etiobong Etukumana, Joseph Amoo
January-April 2020, 8(1):32-40
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_178_18  PMID:31929776
Background: Asymptomatic malaria (ASM) constitutes a reservoir of malaria parasites that sustain transmission and threaten elimination efforts. Studies have also shown a significant relation between insulin resistance and malaria infection. However, data on the clinical effects of ASM and its patterns of carriage among adult malaria patients is limited. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ASM due to Plasmodium falciparum among adult type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in Lagos, Nigeria; to assess the diagnostic performance of light microscopy and histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic test (HRP-2 RDT); and to determine the effects of ASM on glycemic control and anemia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 208 afebrile, nonobese, nonhypertensive T2DM patients, aged 40–70 years, undergoing treatment (adherence, ≥95%) at six private health facilities in Lagos, Nigeria, between March and August 2015. Sociodemographic data were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire and clinical case files. Venous blood samples were collected and processed for fasting blood sugar estimation, packed cell volume determination and malaria parasite detection by HRP2-RDT, light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.5 years. ASM was diagnosed in 16.8%, 7.2% and 4.3% of the patients by PCR, light microscopy and HRP2-RDT, respectively. ASM was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with poor glycemic control, anemia and insulin resistance. The overall parasitemia ranged from 85 to 3789 parasites/μL (median, 1580 parasites/μL). Benchmarking against the PCR results, light microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests were found to have a sensitivity (95% confidence interval) of 42.9% (26.5–59.3) and 22.9% (12.1–39), respectively, in diagnosing ASM. Conclusion: This study revealed that T2DM patients in Lagos, Nigeria, are potential reservoirs of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum, which has a significantly negative effect on glycemic control and anemia. The study also found PCR to be the most effective diagnostic method.
  1,285 205 -
Mitochondrial pathways in cancer
Suad Alateeq
January-April 2020, 8(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_595_19  PMID:31929771
  948 302 -
Association between hepatitis C virus viremia and the rs12979860, rs2228145 and rs1800795 SNP (CT/AC/GG) genotype in Saudi kidney transplant recipients
Khaled R Alkharsah, Alhussain J Alzahrani, Obeid E Obeid, Reem Y Aljindan, Adnane Guella, Amein K Al-Ali, Hussain R Al-Turaifi, Talal A Sallam
January-April 2020, 8(1):46-52
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_175_18  PMID:31929778
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem, particularly in high-risk groups such as kidney transplant recipients, where it can adversely affect graft survival and increase the relative risk for mortality. Recently, the role of genetic variation among HCV patients in determining the outcome of infections has been under investigation. Objective: To investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12979860 (located within the interleukin-28B locus), rs2228145 (interleukin-6 receptor) and rs1800795 (interleukin-6 promoter) with HCV viremia in renal transplant patients. Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, 149 kidney transplant recipients, 82 males (median age: 41 years) and 67 females (median age: 45 years), were screened for HCV RNA in blood using real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped by sequencing (rs12979860) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rs2228145 and rs1800795). Results: HCV RNA was detected in 17 (11.41%) of the 149 patients. There was no statistically significant association between the studied SNPs and HCV viremia. However, a combination of the CT/AC/GG genotype was significantly associated with HCV viremia (odds ratio: 5.4). The genotype AA of rs2228145 in the IL-6 receptor was associated with viremia levels of >105 copies/ml (odds ratio: 5.96). Conclusion: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that has shown that the CT/AC/GG genotype has an impact on HCV viremia in kidney transplant patients. Therefore, such SNP genotypes may potentially be used to identify transplant patients at risk of HCV infection.
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A case report of intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis in a postpartum female in Saudi Arabia
Foziah Jabbar Alshamrani, Abdulla Alsulaiman, Ghadah Faisal Shareefi, Alaa Nabil Turkistani
January-April 2020, 8(1):60-63
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_65_18  PMID:31929781
Neurocysticercosis is a neurologic disease caused by infection with larvae of Taenia solium. It is most commonly transmitted by consumption of pork, water contaminated with T. solium or poor hygiene habits. As only few cases of neurocysticercosis have been documented in Saudi Arabia, the authors report a case of neurocysticercosis in a young Indian female residing in Saudi Arabia who presented with generalized tonic–clonic seizures 6 days after a normal vaginal delivery. Her physical and laboratory investigations as well as chest X-ray and electroencephalogram were all normal. Computed tomography of the head revealed multiple calcified nodular lesions, and magnetic resonance imaging showed ring-enhancing lesion in the left frontoparietal area. Serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (qualitative) was positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies for cysticercosis. A diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was made, and the patient was treated with dexamethasone and levetiracetam for 4 days before discharge. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient's condition had significantly improved, and her seizures had not recurred. This report recommends considering neurocysticercosis as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with new-onset seizures, even if the symptoms do not initially indicate neurocysticercosis or if the patient resides in an area where the disease is rare.
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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a non-small cell lung cancer patient on chemoradiotherapy: A case report
Kevin Doello, Víctor Amezcua, Javier García, Javier Valdivia
January-April 2020, 8(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_255_18  PMID:31929779
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a very uncommon complication in lung cancer patients. We report the case of a 59-year-old, Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (epidermoid) patient who was receiving concurrent chemotherapy scheme (cisplatin + vinorelbine) and radiotherapy and developed fever and dyspnea not controlled with classical antibiotics. The patient developed respiratory distress. A high-resolution computed tomography showed a crazy-paving pattern, and a bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and voriconazole. Few such cases have been reported in the literature, and in most cases, the infection has been found to be associated with aggressive oncological treatments. Therefore, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia should be considered in lung cancer patients with its presenting symptoms, especially if the patient is undergoing aggressive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  870 165 1
Severe methemoglobinemia secondary to Ferula asafoetida ingestion in an infant: A case report
Saleh Al-Qahtani, Sara Abusham, Ibrahim Alhelali
January-April 2020, 8(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_5_18  PMID:31929780
Methemoglobinemia is an increase in the methemoglobin levels in the blood. Infants are more susceptible to develop secondary methemoglobinemia because of the limited activity of methemoglobin reductase B enzyme. We report a case of life-threatening methemoglobinemia secondary to ingestion of Ferula asafoetida herbal remedy in an infant who presented with cyanosis and severe respiratory distress. The patient had two brothers who had a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and the patient's deficiency status was unknown, and thus, methylene blue was not initiated whereas ascorbic acid was unavailable. Accordingly, the patient was successfully treated with hyperoxia. Based on this case, the authors suggest that the use of F. asafoetida as an herbal remedy should be avoided in infants, and pediatricians should be aware of such toxicity and inform parents appropriately.
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Abstracts of "Institute for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC) - Summer Research Program for Undergraduate Students – 2019" presented at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, on October 6, 2019

January-April 2020, 8(1):64-71
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Reviewers, 2019

January-April 2020, 8(1):77-77
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International Medical Conferences/Meetings January – April 2020

January-April 2020, 8(1):75-76
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January-April 2020, 8(1):72-75
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