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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 26-30

Hospital prevalence of retinopathy in patients with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Waseem M AL-Zamil
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Dammam, P.O. Box 2208, Al Khobar 31952
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/1658-631X.194248

PMID: 30787748

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Aims: To determine the period prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the associated factors in patients with newly-diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects and Methods: In this prospective study, all newly-diagnosed T2DM patients who attended the ophthalmology clinic at King Fahad Hospital of the University between January 2012 and January 2015, were examined for DR. After pupillary dilation, the ophthalmic fundus was examined by a retina consultant using slit-lamp indirect ophthalmoscopy. Risk factors such as gender, age, hypertension, nephropathy, the level of glycated hemoglobin (Hb), microalbuminuria, and hyperlipidemia were evaluated for possible association with DR at the time of diagnosis. Results: The study included 112 newly-diagnosed T2DM patients. DR was present in seven patients (6.25%) with a mean age of 53.4 ± 6.4 years, four of whom were females (57%). Nonproliferative DR was present in all patients with DR, two patients (28.6%) presented with bilateral clinically significant macular edema requiring laser photocoagulation treatment and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. In the study cohort, elevated hemoglobin A1C levels (HbA1C) were detected in 55 patients (49.1%), microalbuminuria in 28 (25.0%), hypertension in 31 (27.6%), hyperlipidemia in 65 (58.0%) and obesity in 43 (38.1%). At the time of T2DM diagnosis, uncontrolled HbA1C levels were significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy (P = 0.045); however, no statistical significance was observed for the remaining risk factors. Conclusion: The frequency of retinopathy in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients was similar to previous reports. Vision-threatening maculopathy was present in two of seven patients, requiring further intervention. Therefore, early screening is strongly recommended for all newly-diagnosed T2DM patients. Prospective studies with a large sample size are needed to verify the risk factors for these patients.

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