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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1

Chronic Hepatic Disease

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication7-Mar-2014

Correspondence Address:
Abdulaziz A Al-Quorain
P.O. Box 40001, Al-Khobar 31952, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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DOI: 10.4103/1658-631X.128393

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How to cite this article:
Al-Quorain AA. Chronic Hepatic Disease. Saudi J Med Med Sci 2014;2:1

How to cite this URL:
Al-Quorain AA. Chronic Hepatic Disease. Saudi J Med Med Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 16];2:1. Available from: https://www.sjmms.net/text.asp?2014/2/1/1/128393

Hepatic disorders constitute an important group of diseases encountered in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and recognized as an important common health problem. The etiology of these disorders include mainly viral hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections. However, other causes such as autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson's disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), drugs and ethanol can contribute to the spectrum of chronic liver disease. [1],[2]

Approximately 400 million are infected globally with the HBV, whereas HCV affects some 170 million worldwide. These two viruses are the major causes of chronic liver disease which can progress to chronic liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinomas causing significant morbidity and mortality. [3],[4],[5]

According to studies carried out in KSA in the 1980s and 1990s, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen ranges between 5% and 10% depending on the region. [1],[2] The vaccination introduced in 1989 throughout the Kingdom, resulted in a significant decrease of the prevalence of HBV-infection among persons vaccinated at birth or at school entry to nearly 0% in 2007-2008. [2],[6] The prevalence of HCV-infection differs from region to region, between the different age groups as well as in special populations, such as, patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. According to reports from different parts of the Kingdom, the prevalence ranges between 1% and 3% with a decreasing trend in the prevalence. [2],[3],[7]

In this issue, the review article by Professor Al-Mofleh will address esophageal variceal bleeding, a serious complication of chronic liver disease, the current diagnostic tools, management, protective and prognostic factors. [8],[9]

  References Top

1.Al-Quorain A, Satti MB, Al-Hamdan AR, Al-Gindan Y, Ibrahim E, Khatib R, et al. Pattern of chronic liver disease in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A hospital-based clinicopathological study. Trop Geogr Med 1994;46:358-60.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Abdo AA, Sanai FM, Al-Faleh FZ. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: Are we off the hook? Saudi J Gastroenterol 2012;18:349-57.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Bashawri LA, Fawaz NA, Ahmad MS, Qadi AA, Almawi WY. Prevalence of seromarkers of HBV and HCV among blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia, 1998-2001. Clin Lab Haematol 2004;26:225-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Altraif I, Handoo FA, Al Ghamdi H, Aljumah A, Al Jumah M, Afzal M. Presentation, diagnosis and outcome of predominantly hepatic Wilson's disease in adult Saudi patients: A single centre experience. Saudi J Gastroenterol 2012;18:334-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Perz JF, Armstrong GL, Farrington LA, Hutin YJ, Bell BP. The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide. J Hepatol 2006;45:529-38.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Alfaleh F, Alshehri S, Alansari S, Aljeffri M, Almazrou Y, Shaffi A, et al. Long-term protection of hepatitis B vaccine 18 years after vaccination. J Infect 2008;57:404-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:558-67.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Perri RE, Chiorean MV, Fidler JL, Fletcher JG, Talwalkar JA, Stadheim L, et al. A prospective evaluation of computerized tomographic (CT) scanning as a screening modality for esophageal varices. Hepatology 2008;47:1587-94.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.de Franchis R, Eisen GM, Laine L, Fernandez-Urien I, Herrerias JM, Brown RD, et al. Esophageal capsule endoscopy for screening and surveillance of esophageal varices in patients with portal hypertension. Hepatology 2008;47:1595-603.  Back to cited text no. 9


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