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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 35-39

Kawasaki disease: A university hospital experience

Department of Pediatrics, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Amer A Lardhi
PO Box 40051, Al-Khobar 31952
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/1658-631X.112923

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Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of unknown etiology; it is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children. KD is poorly understood in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Objective: To examine the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of KD in children diagnosed and treated at a tertiary care hospital in eastern province of the KSA. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 35 patients admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of KD was conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA, from 1992 to 2012. Demographics, clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment, and patient outcome were analyzed. Results: The incidence was 7.4 per 100,000 children under five. The male-to-female ratio was 1.9:1. The median age at diagnosis was 15 months, and the diagnosis was made after a mean of 8.1 days of fever. A seasonal peak during the winter-spring months was observed. Thirty-two patients (91%) had classical presentation of KD. Conjunctivitis, changes in the oropharynx, and a polymorphous rash were the most common manifestations. Cardiac involvement was detected in 51%, with coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) noted in 34%. Patients were treated with immunoglobulin and aspirin. The CAA regressed in all patients but one by 12 months. This one child still had persistent aneurysms at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the basic clinical and epidemiological features associated with KD, in the KSA, were similar to those reported from regions in other parts of the world. A nationwide survey, however, is necessary to investigate the overall incidence, potential risk factors, and magnitude of KD disease in the KSA.

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