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   2016| September-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 11, 2016

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Pancreatic rest - an unusual cause of dyspepsia: A case report with literature review
Ibrahim Masoodi, Abed Al-Lehibi, Khalid Almohaimeed, Shabnum Hussain
September-December 2016, 4(3):225-228
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188261  PMID:30787736
Ectopic pancreatic tissue, also known as a pancreatic rest, is an uncommon congenital anomaly defined as extrapancreatic tissue located far from the pancreas and without any connection via vascular or anatomical means. The pancreatic rests are usually asymptomatic, but a variety of clinical symptoms have been described in the literature. This report describes the clinical scenario of severe dyspeptic symptoms of eight weeks duration in a young female. She underwent upper gastroscopic examination, which revealed a nodular lesion in the antral portion of the stomach. After partial gastrectomy and proton pump inhibitors of 1-month duration her symptoms improved. The histological specimen revealed the presence of pancreatic rest and no evidence of malignancy was noted. The patient is symptom-free and has been followed up in our clinic for the last 18 months.
  16,428 398 1
EDITORIAL
Familial intracranial aneurysm
Ahmed S Ammar
September-December 2016, 4(3):147-148
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188265  PMID:30787720
  1,659 3,583 -
CASE REPORTS
From neck swelling to abrupt compromised airway: A case of a hemorrhagic ruptured thyroid cyst
Muneera A Al-Khalifa, Hiba Sharif, Mohamed AlShehabi
September-December 2016, 4(3):229-232
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188250  PMID:30787737
Here, we present a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhagic rupture of a benign thyroid cyst in an adult Indian female who had no history of thyroid gland disease, trauma or coagulopathies. The patient presented to the Emergency Department with a suddenly progressive left-sided neck swelling of short duration. A 36-year-old otherwise healthy female presented to our Emergency Department with a progressive swelling on the left side of her neck that had started 2 days before her visit. Initially, the clinical neck examination revealed a well-defined soft cystic lesion confined to the left side of the neck anteriorly, measuring around 4 cm × 4 cm, tender to touch and moving with deglutition. Preliminary flexible scope examination of her larynx was normal. Within a few hours of having undergone ultrasonography examination, the neck swelling became diffused with increased tenderness. However, the patient remained clinically stable with no signs of airway compromise. A repeat of the fiber optic flexible scope examination showed submucosal hematoma in the left aryepiglottic area that mildly pushed the patient's laryngeal inlet to the contralateral side. Shortly after, the patient's condition worsened with the progression of swelling leading to compression of the airway. This promoted the decision to intubate the patient, who was subsequently, managed conservatively with close monitoring in the intensive care unit. Postintubation ultrasonography and computer tomography scans showed diffused inflammatory changes on the left side of the neck in the superficial and deep planes, mainly confined to the infrathyroid. Spontaneous sudden hemorrhagic rupture of a thyroid gland cyst is a rare condition but should be considered in a massive abrupt neck swelling that could potentially be life threatening.
  4,329 191 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Familial intracranial aneurysms in Saudi Arabia: What do we need to do?
Hosam Al-Jehani, Mahmoud Yamani, Yasser Orz, Bassem Shiekh
September-December 2016, 4(3):149-153
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188252  PMID:30787721
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating event with significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of SAH might be influenced by environmental factors but genetic predisposition is evolving as an important effector in the risk of development of intracranial aneurysms and rupture of aneurysms. This requires strategies for effective screening of family members at risk of developing such a phenotype, in order to deliver preventive treatment to these target lesions. We discuss the potential for implementing these strategies in the Saudi Arabian health system and the future implications on our care for such a vulnerable group of subjects.
  1,963 1,845 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Van der knaap disease: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts
Ankush Sharma, Munish Gupta, Nitin Gupta, Akash Garg
September-December 2016, 4(3):238-239
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188256  PMID:30787739
  3,391 233 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Delivering pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at home using telehealth: A review of the literature
Abdullah A Almojaibel
September-December 2016, 4(3):164-171
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188247  PMID:30787723
Pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended to restore chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' abilities to the highest level of independency and functionality. Telehealth has the potential to improve rehabilitation programs and to enhance patients' participation. However, little is known about the potential benefits of using telehealth in providing rehabilitation for COPD patients at home. The purpose of this review was to provide a narrative synthesis of literature of studies, which use telehealth with video components to provide real-time pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD patients. An electronic database search was performed in the Ovid Medline, CINAHL, and PubMed databases. Seven eligible studies were included based on the inclusion criteria. Based on the included studies, using telehealth to provide real-time interactive pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD patients at home is feasible and acceptable, and can provide clinical and social positive benefits. A knowledge gap regarding feasibility, acceptance, and benefits of using telehealth to provide real-time pulmonary rehabilitation services still exists.
  3,191 402 1
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Physical examinations of psychiatric patients who presented at the emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital in Oman
Salim Al-Huseini, Abdullah Al-Madhani, Afaf Al-Shehhi, Hamed Al-Sinawi
September-December 2016, 4(3):206-211
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188248  PMID:30787731
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the completeness of physical assessment of patients presenting with psychiatric problems to the Emergency Department (ED). Methods: This was to observational study based on a retrospective review of the medical records of patients who attended the ED of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and referred to the on-duty psychiatrist for assessment over a 12 months period. All patients aged 16 years and above, who presented to the ED with a psychiatric complaint were included in the study. A data collection sheet was designed to gather each patient's demographic data such as age and gender, past psychiatric history, nature of the presenting complaints, thoroughness of physical assessment, medications prescribed by the ED doctor prior to psychiatric assessment, and whether the patient was discharged, admitted to a psychiatry or medical ward. Results: A total of 202 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 34.2 years. Females represented 56% of the sample. The majority of the study group (60.4%) were patients with a documented past psychiatric history. Physical examination was conducted in the ED for 61.4% of the patients, while vital signs were recorded for 68.8% of them. Approximately, 31% of the patients required injectable psychotropic medications as tranquillizers in the ED. Patients with an isolated psychiatric complaint coupled with a documented past psychiatric history were more likely to be referred to the on-call psychiatrist without a physical examination by the ED doctors. Conclusion: In our institution, not all patients with psychiatric presentations had a complete physical examination by the ED doctors.
  2,712 228 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Occupational rhinitis revisited: Emphasis on the risk factors in Saudi industry
Seifeddin G Ballal
September-December 2016, 4(3):154-163
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188254  PMID:30787722
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force defines occupational rhinitis (OR) as “an inflammatory disease of the nose, which is characterized by intermittent or persistent symptoms (i.e., nasal congestion, sneezing, rhinorrea, itching), and/or variable nasal airflow limitation and/or hypersecretion arising out of causes and conditions attributable to a particular work environment and not to stimuli encountered outside the workplace.” The objectives of this review are to highlight the causes of OR in industrial settings in Saudi Arabia in order to alert primary healthcare physicians and other healthcare providers of the importance of diagnosing and managing OR to prevent further complications and present to the General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI) evidence of the existence of OR in Saudi industrial sector. The literature search yielded no publications from Saudi Arabia that have investigated the prevalence of OR, but it is expected to be high judging from the high prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the country. The occupational groups that are at risk of developing OR include workers in the petrochemical industry, healthcare personnel, livestock and bird breeders, bakers, farmers, housewives and other occupations all of which are present in Saudi Arabia. Clinic and industry based research within Saudi Arabia is recommended to determine the prevalence of OR and to alert healthcare providers to suspect OR in all symptomatic working adults, including housewives and domestic helpers. Use of EAACI algorithm for the diagnosis and management of this condition will help to manage the condition and prevent the deterioration and further complications. Furthermore, diagnosis using internationally recognized guidelines and the results of the suggested epidemiologic surveys may convince GOSI to recognize OR as an occupational disease.
  2,382 276 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Macronutrients imbalance and micronutrient deficiencies among healthy Saudi physicians in Al Madina, Saudi Arabia
Eman M Alfadhli
September-December 2016, 4(3):192-196
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188264  PMID:30787728
Context: Diet and nutrition are important factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health. Physicians are involved in medical nutrition therapy of their patients; however, little is known on how physicians are personally adherent to good nutrition. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional practices of Saudi physicians. Subjects and Methods: This is a pilot study that included 48 healthy Saudi physicians, of both genders, randomly selected from King Fahad Hospital, Madina, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. Self-reported dietary intake over 24 h was assessed. The adequacy of nutrient intake was evaluated by comparing the physicians' intake to the dietary reference intakes (DRI). Results: The mean age of physicians was 41.6 ± 10 years, weight was 78 ± 20.2 kg, and body mass index was 27.76 ± 5.37 kg/m2. They reported adequate daily consumption of food energy with high intake of carbohydrate (178.5 ± 46.4%) of DRI and high fat and protein intake from animal sources with low fiber intake (34.9 ± 25.1%) of DRI. Daily intakes for most of the micronutrients were lower than recommended with the exception of phosphorus, Vitamin E, and Vitamin B12 with no significant difference between males and females, except for lower intake of iron and Vitamin D by females. Vitamin D was the most severe deficient vitamin; 46.1 ± 53.9% of DRI. Conclusions: Nutritional practices of the sampled group of Saudi Physicians were not optimal. They have a high prevalence of micronutrients deficiencies. In addition, they tend to consume less fiber, more carbohydrate, and food from animal sources. Actions are needed to control nutrition status in Saudi Arabia, including the adoption of healthy eating pattern early in life, extensive nutrition and health education, and intervention strategies.
  2,377 218 -
Etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss in Saudi females
Ahlam A Al-Ghamdi, Sawsan F Makhashen
September-December 2016, 4(3):187-191
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188258  PMID:30787727
Objective: The aim of our retrospective study was to assess the etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Saudi couples attending a specialized RPL clinic at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A total of 59 couples attending the RPL clinic between January 2010 and December 2013 and who had completed their workup and investigations for RPL were included in the study. Data were collected from patients' charts and computer-based laboratory results. Results: Protein S deficiency was found in 47% of patients, a chromosomal abnormality in 6.7%, uterine abnormality in 12%, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in 12%, and antithrombin III and Protein C deficiency in 1.7%. However, no patient had Factor V Leiden mutation. In 39% of the patients, there was no identifiable cause, and therefore, they had been diagnosed as unexplained RPL. Conclusion: The most common cause of RPL was Protein S deficiency followed by congenital uterine anomalies and APS. Almost 40% of couples with RPL remain with unknown etiology.
  2,247 280 -
CASE REPORTS
Polycystic liver disease with huge infected cyst displacing the pancreas, inferior vena cava and right kidney
Adil H Al-Harthi, Patan M Khan, Marwan Al Marwani
September-December 2016, 4(3):222-224
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188259  PMID:30787735
Multiple liver cysts can be an isolated disease (isolated polycystic liver disease [PLD]) or they can be part of multi-organ involvement in other diseases, such as adult autosomal dominant polycystic disease (APD), which is the most frequently inherited polycystic disease affecting 1 in 1,000 of the population. About 33% of APD patients are expected to develop PLD. Cysts in the liver, as opposed to cysts in the kidney, grow dramatically in number and size. They are usually asymptomatic but may present with signs and symptoms of compression of adjacent organs as the cysts grow. We present a case of a 73 year-old female patient with PLD and a large (25 × 19 × 18 cm) infected cyst which caused the displacement of the inferior vena cava, right kidney, and pancreas. We also discuss the management of this patient along with a review of the literature.
  2,139 188 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of chocolate intake on oxidative stress/oxidant-antioxidant balance in medical students: A controlled clinical trial
Rabia Latif, Ahmed A Alsunni
September-December 2016, 4(3):178-182
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188260  PMID:30787725
Background and Aim: Cocoa polyphenols have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro. This study aimed to determine whether commercially available chocolate could improve oxidant/antioxidant balance in medical students. Materials and Methods: Sixty students (30 males and 30 females) were given three different types of chocolate. Subjects were divided equally into three groups of 20 students (10 males and 10 females) as follows: (i) Dark chocolate group (DC), (ii) milk chocolate group (MC), and (iii) placebo group (PC). The placebo group was given white chocolate. Blood was drawn at baseline and after consumption of chocolate (40 g/day) for 2 weeks. Serum was analyzed for DNA/RNA oxidative damage, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzymes. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the frequency distributions of the study variables. Means were compared across the study groups by one-way Analysis of Variance and within the same group by paired t-test. Results: Mean serum DNA/RNA damage, TBARS, SOD, and GPX enzymes compared between the groups revealed insignificant differences after 2 weeks of chocolate consumption (P = 0.46, 0.19, 0.11, and 0.06). Comparison within the same group also exhibited statistically insignificant differences in DNA/RNA damage in DC and MC groups (0.29 and 0.46, respectively); TBARS in DC and MC groups (0.11 and 0.19, respectively); SOD in DC and MC groups (0.06 and 0.11, respectively); and GPX in DC and MC groups (0.68 and 0.78, respectively). Conclusion: Consumption of 40 g of DC or MC daily for a period of 2 weeks appears to be an ineffective way of improving oxidant/antioxidant balance in medical students.
  2,003 270 1
Low bone mass secondary to antipsychotic medications
Abdallah S Al-Omran, Mahdi S Abu-Madini, Mir Sadat-Ali, Moaad H Alfaraidy, Waleed K Shihada
September-December 2016, 4(3):202-205
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188246  PMID:30787730
Background and Objective: Antipsychotic medications are known to cause low bone mass. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis secondary to patients taking antipsychotic medications. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 175 patients taking antipsychotic medications and attending the psychiatric clinics at the King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data, antipsychotic medications, type, and duration of administration of medication were collected. All patients had bone mass measurement using dual energy X-ray (DXA) absorptiometry. Patients were divided into 5-year groups, from ≤35 to ≥51 years. The data were entered in the database and analyzed using SPSS Inc version 20. Results: The average age of patients was 40.75 ± 7.16 years (range: 26–56 years), there were 120 (82.8%) males and 25 (17.2%) females. Our results indicate that the average duration of anti-psychotic medication use was 8.45 ± 5.4 years. DXA of the hip revealed that 25 (14.2%) patients were osteoporotic and 104 (59.42%) were osteopenic, while on the basis of the T-score of the lumbar spine, 77 (44%) patients were osteoporotic and 80 (45.7%) were osteopenic. On the basis of the spinal bone mineral density (BMD), 89.7% had low bone mass. Conclusion: Anti-psychotic medications have a strong influence on the reduction of bone mass even in younger populations. The BMD of patients who are prescribed anti-psychotic medication need to be monitored for low bone mass and provided with the appropriate treatment.
  1,948 193 -
Patient's desire and preference for provision of information toward greater involvement in shared care
Ali I AlHaqwi, Turki M AlDrees, Ahmad R AlRumayyan, Ali I AlFarhan, Motasim Badri
September-December 2016, 4(3):172-177
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188266  PMID:30787724
Objectives: To determine the perceptions of patients on whether they receive sufficient information about their medical problems, their preferences to obtain information, and factors that may influence their preferences. Design and Settings: Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted in a primary health-care center affiliated with the National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Patients attending the center between October and December 2010 were interviewed using a questionnaire developed to meet the objectives of the study. Results: A total of 245 patients participated in the study. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the participants was 43 (±16) years. Reported cases of dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension among participants were 42%, 39%, and 31%, respectively. A minority of the participants indicated that they had a sufficient knowledge of their medical problems. The vast majority of the patients (92%) indicated that their preference to be informed about available treatment options and the plan for their future treatment. However, only 38% indicated that they had been told about the available treatment options, and less than half (48%) were informed about their future treatment plan. The proportion of male patients who preferred to know the treatment plan for their medical problems was significantly more than that of females (P < 0.001); nevertheless, female participants perceived that they had been better informed about their treatment plan than the male participants (P = 0.003). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients receive information about their medical problems much less than their expectations. Measures to promote patient education and their involvement in shared care process should be considered and implemented to minimize serious health outcomes.
  1,868 266 -
CASE REPORTS
Genitourinary tract involvement in a child with epidermolysis bullosa
Hala M Al Moaigel, Bashayer S Al-Awam
September-December 2016, 4(3):218-221
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188249  PMID:30787734
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare, inherited, bullous disorder of the skin that occasionally involves the urinary tract. We report a 3-month-old, premature infant with EB, who presented with gross hematuria. Urine analysis revealed macrohematuria and proteinuria. The urine culture was negative. On ultrasonic evaluation, there was bilateral hydronephrosis and the distal ureters had echogenic shadows, suggestive of clotted blood. This case is consistent with the rare involvement of the urinary tract with hydronephrosis and bullous lesions.
  1,869 185 -
IN FOCUS
The broken link: Admission criteria for inpatient rehabilitation and some common misconceptions
Ahmad Z Qureshi, Randolph M Jenkins, Laneita F Williamson
September-December 2016, 4(3):233-237
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188257  PMID:30787738
  1,772 187 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of various potassium channels in caffeine-induced aortic relaxation in rats
Rabia Latif, Ahmed Badar
September-December 2016, 4(3):197-201
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188251  PMID:30787729
Background: Studies done on caffeine-induced changes in aortic rings have demonstrated inconclusive results. Moreover, the role of various potassium channels in caffeine-induced effects has not been explored so far. The present in vitro study was designed to explore the direct effects of caffeine on rat aortic rings and the role of various potassium channels in those changes/effects. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in College of Medicine, University of Dammam. Aortic rings obtained from Sprague Dawley rats were mounted in the organ bath. Tension in the aortic rings was measured with an isometric force transducer and recorded with a PowerLab data-acquisition system. Aortic rings in relaxed and contractile state were exposed to caffeine and various potassium channel blockers (glyburide, 4-aminopyridine, or tetraethylammonium). Results: Caffeine produced significant relaxation of isolated aortic rings (baseline tension: 1.26 ± 0.30 g, tension after adding cumulative concentrations of caffeine: 1.12 ± 0.31 g,P< 0.05) in the absence or presence of norepinephrine (NE) (tension induced by NE: 1.06 ± 0.37 g, tension after adding cumulative concentrations of caffeine: 1.01 ± 0.36 g,P< 0.05). Caffeine's vasodilatory effects were, however, blocked in aortic rings pretreated with different types of potassium channel blockers such as 4-aminopyridine (tension induced by NE: 1.52 ± 0.41 g, tension after adding cumulative concentrations of caffeine: 1.50 ± 0.37 g,P> 0.05), glyburide (tension induced by NE: 0.82 ± 0.35 g, tension after adding cumulative concentrations of caffeine: 0.79 ± 0.42 g,P> 0.05), and tetraethylammonium (tension induced by NE: 0.68 ± 0.34 g, tension after adding cumulative concentrations of caffeine: 0.67 ± 0.33 g,P> 0.05). Conclusion: Caffeine causes significant dilation of aortic rings, and this vasodilatory effect may involve ATP-dependent, calcium-mediated, or voltage-dependent potassium channels.
  1,797 157 1
CASE REPORTS
Adrenal insufficiency and mild rhabdomyolysis revealing a human immunodeficiency virus infection: A case report
Intissar Haddiya, Hayat Berkhli, Siham Hamaz, Yassamine Bentata
September-December 2016, 4(3):212-214
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188262  PMID:30787732
The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy is large. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is common in both early and late stages of HIV syndrome, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. However, rhabdomyolysis is a muscle disease in which striated muscle fibers disintegrate, excreting myoglobin in the urine, leading to acute kidney failure. It is currently reported that rhabdomyolysis may be a direct result of the HIV infection, especially in the advanced stages of HIV/AIDS disease. This case study reports AI and a mild rhabdomyolysis in a patient with no medical history and no medicine or toxic intake. Laboratory assessment revealed HIV infection.
  1,747 174 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Safety of simultaneous bilateral intraocular surgery under general anesthesia in pediatric patients
Elham R Al-Tamimi
September-December 2016, 4(3):183-186
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188255  PMID:30787726
Objective: To evaluate the risks and benefits of simultaneous bilateral intraocular surgery (SBIS) in pediatric patients at a university hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, who are placed under general anesthesia for the procedure. Methods: This retrospective, noncomparative case study comprised 15 children, who underwent bilateral cataract surgery and/or primary or secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in one sitting between November 2008 and July 2014. Seven patients had bilateral lensectomy primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy, and the remaining eight patients had bilateral IOL implantation at the capsular bag either primarily IOL implantation (two cases) at the time of cataract extraction or secondary IOL implantation at the capsular bag (six cases). Bilateral surgeries were performed sequentially by the same surgeon, with strict aseptic separation of the two surgeries, while the patient was under general anesthesia. Results: The age of the patients at the time of the surgery ranged from 7 months to 9 years (mean age 2.13 years). The patients were followed up approximately for 4 months postsurgery. There were no catastrophic complications from the anesthesia (death, asphyxia, cardiac or respiratory arrest, or seizures) nor were there any intraoperative complications that necessitated cancelation of surgery in the second eye. Postoperatively, one patient was noted to have reproliferation of lens material in one eye. However, no serious postoperative complications such as endophthalmitis, aphakic glaucoma, and hyphema were noted. Conclusion: SBIS conducted during the same operative procedure is an alternative to sequential surgery in selected pediatric patients if operative guidelines and surgical asepsis are strictly followed.
  1,713 193 -
CASE REPORTS
Dreadful twins: Twin unruptured aneurysms of bilateral intracranial arteries
Ankush Sharma, Nitin Gupta, Munish Gupta, Shivam Sharma
September-December 2016, 4(3):215-217
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188253  PMID:30787733
Intracranial aneurysms are the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage which carries a significant risk of mortality. Mirror aneurysm constitute between 5-12% of all the intracranial aneurysms. These are uncommon entities with poorly understood pathogenesis and clinical significance.
  1,594 173 3
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
The woman who lost her words
Thomas Gregor Issac, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
September-December 2016, 4(3):239-240
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188267  PMID:30787740
  1,294 229 -
IMAGE QUIZ
An enigma of the gallbladder
Saja A Alaqeel, Faten O Alaqeel, Khaldoon A Saleh, Abdulmohsen A Al-Mulhim
September-December 2016, 4(3):242-244
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188270  PMID:30787743
  1,259 173 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Chronic foreign body aspiration in a Saudi child - an occult cause of chronic pulmonary disease: Case report and literature review
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
September-December 2016, 4(3):240-241
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188268  PMID:30787741
  1,125 207 -
Author's Reply
Mai S Al-Zahrani
September-December 2016, 4(3):241-241
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188269  PMID:30787742
  1,051 132 -
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