Home Print this page Email this page Users Online: 618
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Reader Login
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most popular articles (Since June 03, 2013)

 
 
  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
 
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
REVIEW ARTICLES
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: Review of history, clinical features, and controversies
Nigel Speight
January-June 2013, 1(1):11-13
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.112905  
Myalgic encephalomyelits/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) has been both a medical mystery and a source of controversy in Western medicine for over 50 years. This article reviews the major historical developments over this period, describes the clinical pattern and spectrum of severity, and then explores the current major controversies surrounding the subject.
  13,612 834 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Complications of Circumcision
Nisar A Bhat, Hamid Raashid, Kumar A Rashid
May-August 2014, 2(2):86-89
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.136990  
Objective: Circumcision is one of the most frequently performed elective procedures in male. In general, post circumcision complications are minor and treatable but complications requiring expert intervention are seen when the circumcision is perrformed by inexperienced/untrained person and in non-sterile setting and inadequate equipments. Materials and Methods: From March 2008 to May 2012, 59 patients with circumcision related complications were received at age range of 6 months to 5 years with a mean age of 2.4 years. The most common complication was urethra-cutaneous fistulae in 18 patients, followed by meatal stenosis in 9, bleeding in 6, incomplete circumcision in 6, buried penis in 5, glanular injury in 4, skin bridge in 4, complete amputation of phallus 3, hole in the prepuce in 3 patients and one patient with coronal constriction and fistula. Results: Urethral fistulae were closed in all 18 patients with recurrence in 16%. Two patients with extensive bleeding required blood transfusion and all 6 children required hematoma evacuation under general anesthesia in the operating room. The circumcision was revised in those with an incomplete procedure, a hole in prepuce, burried penis and residual skin bridge. Meatotomy was the procedure of choice in 6 of 9 patients with meatal stenosis, but in the remainder meatal dilatation was efffective. Glanular injuries were managed conservatively. A short residual after glanular injury needed grafting. Conclusion: Circumcision is considered a simple and minor surgical procedure, yet it needs to be performed competently by only medically qualified and trained personnel and with a great care.
  8,386 435 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Molecular classification of breast cancer: An overview with emphasis on ethnic variations and future perspectives
Mohamed A Shawarby, Dalal M Al-Tamimi, Ayesha Ahmed
January-June 2013, 1(1):14-19
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.112908  
Morphologically identical breast cancers can display divergent clinical outcomes and responses to therapy. This can predominantly be attributed to molecular class differences that exist amongst histologically similar cancer types. Consequently, molecular classification can be more powerful than histopathology as a predictive factor for the different treatments. This article reviews the molecular classification of breast cancer and emphasizes that ethnic variations may exist in molecular class prevalence patterns. It also highlights key insights into the currently defined molecular classes as provided by ongoing research on primary breast cancers using recent state-of-the-art technology. Such research is revealing that significant molecular heterogeneity may exist within the molecular classes themselves. More diverse ethnic variations may also be unraveled. The results of ongoing and upcoming research may provide more precise prognostic and predictive information about breast cancer and perhaps a breakthrough step toward "personaliziation" of breast cancer treatment. Forty-one relevant articles (2000-2012) extracted through PubMed and Google advanced searches and at our institute's library were utilized to prepare the article, along with results of published and ongoing research by the authors.
  6,668 1,133 2
Prevalence, severity, and secular trends of dental caries among various saudi populations: A literature review
Asim A Al-Ansari
December 2014, 2(3):142-150
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.142496  
The prevalence of dental caries is increasing across different nations around the globe. A review of the literature shows that dental caries is adversely affecting the oral health of children, adolescents, adults and elderly populations in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this review is to report the prevalence, severity, and progression of dental caries in different age groups of Saudi communities. Digital databases such as PubMed, Medline, Google scholar, and the Saudi Dental and Medical Journals were searched to retrieve the published articles and reports on dental caries in Saudi Arabia. Search strategy included key words such as "dental caries," dental decay, decayed missing filled teeth (dmft/DMFT), and oral health. Cross-sectional, retrospective and cohort studies (from 1982 to 2012) reporting the prevalence, incidence and severity of caries among children, adults and older individuals were included in the review. In children with primary dentition ages 3-7 years, the highest caries prevalence was almost 95% and maximum estimate of dmft was 7.34 during the last decade. Approximately, 91% was the highest caries prevalence and greatest DMFT value was 7.35 among the children/adolescents ages 12-19 years. The adults with a mean age between 30 and 45 years had maximum caries prevalence of 98% and DMFT of 14.53 while older individuals had greatest DMFT score of 24.3. Children, adults, and elderly populations demonstrate a higher prevalence and greater severity of caries, and secular trends also show a striking increase in dmft/DMFT and caries prevalence rates over the past few decades in Saudi Arabia.
  6,817 884 4
INVITED ARTICLE
Prognostic and predictive markers for oral squamous cell carcinoma: The importance of clinical, pathological and molecular markers
Saman Warnakulasuriya
January-April 2014, 2(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.128400  
The overall 5-year survival rate following treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma is around 50% in most published series. The major prognostic factors are stage at the time of diagnosis, unexpected close margins at resection, depth and pattern of tissue invasion by carcinoma and extracapsular spread. Grading by gross histological differentiation does not influence prognosis, unless deeply invasive margins are evaluated by the pathologist. Because stage at diagnosis is the most important factor affecting outcome, early detection results in better prognosis in most cases.
  5,401 1,265 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Factors associated with diabetic septic foot among patients attending the diabetic septic foot unit in the military hospital, Khartoum State, Sudan
Siham A Balla, Haidr A Ahmed, Suzan F Alhassan
July-December 2013, 1(2):98-102
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.123658  
Context: Diabetic septic foot (DSF) is a serious outcome complication of diabetes mellitus. Patients having DSF are at a high risk of amputations and surgical hazards. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the self-care of foot and factors associated with DSF among diabetic patients attending the DSF unit in the Military Hospital. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted among diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic in the Military Hospital during May-June 2012. Thirty DSF cases and 30 controls were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and DSF was observed and graded by Wagner's classification. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics of the cases was presented and Fisher's exact test was used to test the risk factors associated with DSF. Results: The mean age for the study groups was 55.60 ΁ 11.9 years. Based on the Wagner classification, 83.3% of septic feet were classified as grades 3, 4 and 5. Considering the delay in presentation with DSF to the hospital, 86.7% presented after 1 week up to more than 2 months from the start of the lesion. Low socioeconomic status, lack of self-care of foot, peripheral neuropathy and foot ischemia and deformity were associated with developing DSF (P-value < 0.05). Conclusion: Most patients with DSF seek care late and present with advance grade lesions. Lack of self-care of foot, peripheral neuropathy and foot ischemia and deformity are the risk factors of DSF.
  6,221 444 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Social media in healthcare: Uses, risks, and barriers
Abdul R Alsughayr
May-August 2015, 3(2):105-111
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.156405  
Establishing a social media presence has never been more important for the healthcare industry. With patients going online to discuss their health and research their conditions, it is essential for healthcare professionals and organizations to maintain a social web presence and have a voice in these conversations. Though there are many potential benefits for social media in healthcare, there are also risks to be taken into consideration when planning to engage in these relatively new forms of media. Privacy and security are top consumer concerns on sharing health information. Social media is about dialogue, interactivity, spontaneity, people, and technology. One of the goals of social media is to help patients become better informed, equipped to participate in their care, and be able to partner with their healthcare providers to develop plans of care that meet their individual needs. This review will present important social media elements and discuss their barriers and risks.
  6,141 501 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
A review on the hypoglycemic effect of nigella sativa and thymoquinone
Abdullah O Bamosa
January-April 2015, 3(1):2-7
Nigella sativa (black seeds) is a very famous and popular herb used for centuries in many communities. N. sativa has been shown to possess therapeutic potential to many illnesses. Hypoglycemic effect of N. sativa has been studied extensively in the literature. This review gathered and analyzed the results reported in the literature related to the hypoglycemic effect of N. sativa. A search was done for N. sativa and black seeds as key words in PubMed and Google scholar databases. Published studies document a hypoglycemic effect of N. sativa in normal and diabetic animals and humans. Volatile oil and thymoquinone seem to be the most effective fractions of the seed in producing its hypoglycemic effect. The mechanism of N. sativa hypoglycemic effect is multifactorial including increasing insulin level, decreasing insulin resistance, stimulating β cells activity, direct insulin-like effect, and decreasing intestinal glucose absorption. Further, basic followed by clinical research to explore N. sativa ingredient responsible for its promising hypoglycemic effect is recommended.
  5,763 776 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of environmental noise pollution in the university of dammam campus
Mahmoud F El-Sharkawy, Ali Alsubaie
December 2014, 2(3):178-184
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.142532  
Context: Noise pollution has been well-recognized as one of the major trepidations that can adversely affect public health and quality-of-life in urban areas across the globe. Community noise, or environmental noise, includes the primary sources of road, rail and air traffic, industries, and public works. Aims: The main aim of this study is to assess the noise level inside the University of Dammam (UD) campus. Settings and Design: Three different locations were selected for measuring noise levels during this study; outside walls, the internal streets, and inside several buildings of the UD campus. Materials and Methods: Levels of the environmental noise pollution were measured at three different periods of the academic year 2011-2012; during study days, final exams and the holiday periods. Statistical Analysis Used: Results of this research were statistically analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS program. Results: Levels of noise outside walls of the UD campus were higher than those inside the campus walls at all periods. Inside the UD campus, levels of noise were the highest at locations that are characterized by the high traffic movement. In addition, the highest level of noise was recorded during the studying period, while the lowest level was obtained during the holiday period. Levels of the indoor noise inside buildings of the campus were nearly the same or very slightly higher than those of the outdoor levels which indicate that the effect of human activity inside university buildings on noise pollution can be neglected comparing with the outdoor sources. Conclusion: Both levels of noise inside and outside buildings were higher than their guideline values. These high noise levels require effective environmental control strategies and increasing awareness between all staff members inside universities camps.
  5,183 406 -
CASE REPORTS
Insulin lipohypertrophy: A non-fatal dermatological complication of diabetes mellitus reflecting poor glycemic control
Ishrat H Dar, Showkat H Dar, Sumayya Wani
July-December 2013, 1(2):106-108
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.123646  
Lipohypertrophy has been a recognized complication of insulin therapy. Despite improvements in insulin purity and the introduction of recombinant human insulin, its prevalence has remained high particularly in those with a poor glycemic control. Injection of insulin into a site of lipohypertrophy, although painless, may lead to erratic absorption of insulin, with the potential for poor glycemic control and unpredictable hypoglycemia. Rotation of injection sites can reduce the frequency of the problem but does not abolish it. The importance of this complication is not only cosmetic but also in its impact on insulin absorption, and hence glycemic control. Lipohypertrophy is characterized by a benign "tumor-like" swelling of fatty tissue secondary to subcutaneous insulin injections. A strong association of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy with insulin antibodies might suggest that autoimmune phenomena with insulin play a role in the development of both. Presented here is a young type 1 diabetic on human insulin with poor glycemic control who developed lipohypertrophy at the injection sites around the umbilicus.
  4,786 682 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
A concise history of genome-wide association studies
Bobby P. C. Koeleman, Amein Al-Ali, Sander W van der Laan, Folkert W Asselbergs
January-June 2013, 1(1):4-10
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.112902  
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have had a tremendous impact on the pace of genomic research of common diseases. The number of identified genetic variants associated has grown exponentially. For some diseases, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), the number of known susceptibility genes has grown from a handful to more than 45. A substantial number of genes point to unexpected mechanism involved, and functional data from the "Encyclopedia of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Elements" (ENCODE) project is helpful in uncovering the functional relevance to diseases. The rapidly evolving techniques have made the shift from family-based linkage studies to GWASs possible. Advanced single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays containing hundreds of thousands of variants efficiently assess the extent of genome-wide disease-associated genetic variation. Along with SNP arrays came breakthroughs in statistical analyses and study designs leading to the exponential growth of the GWAS catalog. Pathway analyses of GWASs results with manually curated software programs have been insightful. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the exome or even the whole genome will undoubtedly shift the balance in focus from common variants to more rare variations impacting common diseases. Moreover, the combined power of GWASs, sequencing, pathway analysis, and functional data to study common disease shall only be limited by our ability to comprehend.
  4,652 650 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
To treat or not to treat asymptomatic hyperuricemia
Hamid Mustafa
May-August 2014, 2(2):95-100
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.136996  
Background: Hyperuricemia is a term given to serum uric acid levels higher than 7.0 mg/dL; asymptomatic hyperuricemia may precede gouty attacks with several years. This progression is variable from a person-to-person and may not even develop. Owing to this, there is a great controversy in whether to treat asymptomatic hyperuricemia or not. Objective: The objective of the following study is to determine the treatment habits of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in Makkah Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This survey was carried out using a structured questionnaire that was answered through face-to-face interviews with 104 physicians who diagnose and treat hyperuricemia. The data was collected on the second half of 2012. The specialties included in the study were general practitioners, family physicians, orthopedicians and rheumatologists. Results: Half of the doctors in our study (50.9%) chose to observe and follow asymptomatic hyperuricemic patients and 84% depend on the serum uric acid levels to help them decide when to start their treatment, 53% asked about co-morbid diseases as renal stones, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease whereas 49% asked about family history. When doctors are to start the treatment, 84.1% will start with allopurinol and 42.5% will advise on the change of dietary and life-style habits. Conclusions: The results showed that the doctors in Makkah Region depend on the serum uric acid levels to decide when to start the treatment, not abiding by the international guidelines. They still chose the life-style and dietary modification, as well as starting treatment with allopurinol with a starting dose of 100 mg/dL daily.
  4,789 488 -
CASE REPORTS
Pancreatic rest - an unusual cause of dyspepsia: A case report with literature review
Ibrahim Masoodi, Abed Al-Lehibi, Khalid Almohaimeed, Shabnum Hussain
September-December 2016, 4(3):225-228
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.188261  
Ectopic pancreatic tissue, also known as a pancreatic rest, is an uncommon congenital anomaly defined as extrapancreatic tissue located far from the pancreas and without any connection via vascular or anatomical means. The pancreatic rests are usually asymptomatic, but a variety of clinical symptoms have been described in the literature. This report describes the clinical scenario of severe dyspeptic symptoms of eight weeks duration in a young female. She underwent upper gastroscopic examination, which revealed a nodular lesion in the antral portion of the stomach. After partial gastrectomy and proton pump inhibitors of 1-month duration her symptoms improved. The histological specimen revealed the presence of pancreatic rest and no evidence of malignancy was noted. The patient is symptom-free and has been followed up in our clinic for the last 18 months.
  4,984 136 -
Presentation of conjunctival amyloidosis as bilateral ptosis and cicatricial entropion
Kumar Sambhav, Vipul Bhandari, H Ajith
January-June 2013, 1(1):48-50
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.112934  
Primary localized amyloidosis of the conjunctiva is a rare occurrence. This case report describes a 35-year-old male, who presented with drooping of both upper eyelids and a pricking sensation in the left eye. Examination of the conjunctiva showed granular swellings. The biopsy revealed amyloid deposition. Systemic amyloidosis was ruled out on further investigation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of amyloidosis of the conjunctiva and tarsus, presenting as ptosis with entropion, from India.
  4,826 254 -
INVITED ARTICLE
Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Ahsa Oasis in Saudi Arabia and in Sudan: A comparative study
Ahmed M El Hassan
July-December 2013, 1(2):64-71
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.123642  
This is a comparative study of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan. The disease in both countries is caused by Leishmania major of different syndromes and the vector is Phlebotomus papatasi. The animal reservoir host in Saudi Arabia is Psammomys obesus and the Nile rat in Sudan. The clinical manifestations are similar, but some forms encountered in Sudan were not seen in Saudi Arabia. The pathology, immunology, diagnosis and treatment of CL are discussed.
  4,187 811 -
Public health in the saudi health system: A search for new guardian
Waleed A Milaat
May-August 2014, 2(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.136973  
Saudi Arabia has witnessed a significant improvement in its health indicators. The kingdom has spent generously on the curative health services and established hundreds of hospitals and primary health care centers. However, we believe that this huge health expenditures and the presence of curative services is not the only reason for this improvement. Public health services have also had a significant impact on people's health and that this improvement is due to a combination of public health programs such as immunization, environmental sanitation and health education with good formulation of sound health policies and health delivery systems. It is noted that health plans and expenditure in the health system are concentrating on the curative aspects and there is a significant weaknesses in public health services. Additionally, most jobs are allocated for curative care and there is scarcity of job titles related to public health in the health structure, such as public health officers, public health inspectors and public health specialists. A suggested body namely, Ministry of public health, will work to confirm that all issues related to health of the public in every aspect of daily life in the kingdom are within the genuine interest of all policy makers.
  4,150 479 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: A 2013 update
Mohammad I El Mouzan
July-December 2013, 1(2):72-81
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.123644  
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) refers to the passage of gastric contents (acid, pepsin, etc) in the esophagus. It is a worldwide physiologic condition most common in infants. This physiologic condition (GER) should be differentiated from the pathologic reflux called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The distinction between GER and GERD is based on severity of the reflux episodes. [1],[2] The most common mechanism of reflux is transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) and less commonly low resting LES pressure. [3] GER presents with regurgitation and occasional vomiting only without effects on growth and development whereas GERD usually has additional presentations. The objective of this review is to provide update on recent developments in the diagnosis and management of this condition.
  4,205 390 -
The uses of melatonin in anesthesia and surgery
Hany A Mowafi, Salah A Ismail
December 2014, 2(3):134-141
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.142495  
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It is available as a dietary supplement, taken primarily for the relief of insomnia. Increasing evidence from human and animal studies suggests that melatonin may be efficacious as a preoperative anxiolytic, a postoperative analgesic, and a preventative for postoperative delirium. It has also been reported to decrease intraocular pressure. Melatonin's high efficacy, wide safety profile in terms of dose, and virtual lack of toxicity make it of interest in anesthetic and surgical practice. This review examines clinical trial data describing the efficacy and safety of melatonin in the perioperative anesthetic and surgical settings. We shall, also, focus attention on animal and human experimental studies that concern these issues.
  3,609 958 -
IN FOCUS
Global plan for the decade of action for road safety: Expectations from developing nations
Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
January-April 2014, 2(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.128456  
Globally, 1.24 million people die every year because of road traffic accidents (RTAs) and almost 20-50 million people sustain non-fatal injuries. Realizing the magnitude and the global distribution of the problem, the current decade 2011-2020 has been proclaimed as the Decade of Action for road safety, with a target of first stabilizing and then decreasing the estimated magnitude of morbidity and mortality by intensifying the global efforts on national and international platform. The primary step is to develop a surveillance network for data collection to identify the causative factors and estimate the accurate magnitude of RTA so that rational policy can be planned for achieving the best possible allocation of limited resources, especially in developing countries. Other measures such as creating public awareness; strict enforcement of road safety legislations; establishing prompt and good quality post-crash response; and establishing monitoring and evaluation system to assess the outcome of implemented measures can be strategically implemented to counter the burden of road traffic accidents.
  3,925 593 -
CASE REPORTS
Appendiceal Endometriosis
Ayman A Al-Talib
July-December 2013, 1(2):103-105
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.123645  
Although appendiceal endometriosis is rare, appendix is the second most common site of intestinal endometriosis. Clinical diagnosis is difficult and histopathology is the only way to establish the diagnosis. We present a case of chronic pelvic pain secondary to appendiceal endometriosis and a review of the literature. There are no pathognomonic criteria to establish an accurate preoperative diagnosis. There is no specific radiologic test for diagnose. Laparoscopy provides detailed evaluation of the appendix but gross inspection of appendix alone is not enough to rule out the problem. The appendix may harbor endometriosis and could be a cause of chronic pelvic pain. When performing surgeries in a patient with chronic pelvic pain, surgeons should be aware of the possible contribution of the problem pelvic pain in patients with endometriosis. The appendix should be examined thoroughly during endometriosis-related operations. Appendectomy should be performed if the appendix looks abnormal.
  4,165 221 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Urine Albumin/creatinine ratio: A reliable marker of renal injury in sickle cell nephropathy
Ibrahiem S Abdul-Rahman
January-April 2014, 2(1):17-23
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.128403  
Objective: Albumin/creatinine ratio is a sensitive marker of glomerular damage in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and post-infection glomerulonephritis. Whether or not the albumin/creatinine ratio has the same value in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients is not yet explored. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of glomerular damage in SCA and the clinical correlation between albumin/creatinine ratio and renal insufficiency in this group of patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine adult patients with SCA (hemoglobin SS subtype) were included in this study. Albumin excretion rates (expressed as albumin/creatinine ratio) and renal function (creatinine clearance) were determined and clinical and hematologic evaluations were conducted. Results: Increased albumin/creatinine ratio (micro- and macroalbuminuria) occurred in 57% of the patients. The development of graded albuminuria was time dependent; therefore, at the end of the study, 26.6% of the patients had macroalbuminuria. There were no differences in hemoglobin levels between patients with normoalbuminuria and those with micro- or macroalbuminuria. By multivariate analysis, albuminuria correlated with age and creatinine clearance (Cr Cl) but not with blood pressure (BP) or hemoglobin levels. Conclusion: Albumin/creatinine ratio is a sensitive marker of glomerular damage in SCA patients, and it correlated well with Cr Cl; therefore, patients with abnormal albumin/creatinine ratio should be monitored closely for progression of renal disease. The development of micro- and macroalbuminuria is related to age but not to the degree of anemia, suggesting that sickle cell glomerulopathy is not solely related to hemodynamic adaptations to chronic anemia.
  3,952 377 -
The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in patients with beta-thalassemia major
Waleed I Albaker, Abdullah A Yousef, Ammar H Khamis, Abdulmohsin F Aldilaijan, Nouf K AlMaghlouth
July-December 2013, 1(2):88-93
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.123654  
Background: Blood transfusion-dependent beta Thalassemia Major (BTM) patients are at risk of hemosiderosis. Hemosiderosis of pancreas results in impaired glucose homeostasis tolerance and diabetes mellitus (DM). Since glycosylated hemoglobin has limited role in patients with hemoglobinopathies, this study was conducted as a first attempt worldwide to understand glucose homeostasis and evaluate efficacy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) system as a diagnostic tool of abnormal glucose homeostasis in these patients. Materials and Methods: A case series study of six non-diabetic, transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients aged 9-13-year-old. Clinical and laboratory data were collected on admission for their monthly transfusion. Patients were connected to CGM systems for one day. Findings: Using CGM and based on American Diabetes Association guidelines, three patients were found to have abnormal glucose levels of diabetic range. The other three showed impaired glucose tolerance. Among all patients, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) readings have an inverse relationship to CGM and calibration readings. Conclusion: CGM could be a promising tool for evaluating BTM patients. Larger studies are recommended.
  3,710 297 3
Effect of time on electronic working length determination with a novel endodontic module in preclinical endodontic training
Emad O AlShwaimi, Udaya B Narayanaraopeta
January-April 2014, 2(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.128451  
Aim: To evaluate electrical conductivity of the medium provided with ModuPRO endodontic modules, and compare it with those of alginate and vinyl polysiloxane impression materials over varying time intervals. Materials and Methods: A 24 Real Endo-t teeth were mounted in the ModuPRO Endo™ modules using three different mounting media [Groups A (Apex Putty), B (alginate), C (extra-light body vinyl polysiloxane)]. The working lengths were predetermined by microscopy, and the root canals were prepared with ProFile rotary instruments before mounting. Working lengths were checked with an electronic apex locator at 24 and 48 hours; 1, 4, and 6 weeks; and 6 months. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests, and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum test, with significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Group C showed higher measurements and significant differences from groups A and B for up to 6 weeks (P < 0.05). There was no difference between groups A and B (P > 0.05). After 6 months, all groups showed significantly higher working lengths from those predetermined, but no statistically significant differences were observed among them (P > 0.05). For all groups, differences from predetermined working lengths were lowest at the 1-week interval. Conclusions: Both alginate and the Apex Putty can be used for determining the working lengths using an apex locator over a longer time period. Our study has shown that ModuPRO Endo™ modules, along with the Apex Putty, are effective tools for teaching working length determination with apex locators in preclinical endodontic training.
  3,664 278 1
TIPS FROM THE EDITOR
Plagiarism
Hassan Bella
May-August 2014, 2(2):127-127
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.137015  
  3,543 326 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The impact of valsalva's versus spontaneous pushing techniques during second stage of labor on postpartum maternal fatigue and neonatal outcome
Yasmeen A Haseeb, Anwar N Alkunaizi, Haifa Al Turki, Fathia Aljama, Soheir I Sobhy
May-August 2014, 2(2):101-105
DOI:10.4103/1658-631X.137000  
Objectives: The objective of the following study is to find out the effects of two different pushing techniques in the second stage of labor on postpartum maternal fatigue and APGAR score of neonates in Saudi females, as very few such studies are available in these patients. Hence this study was carried out in this population to see the results and to do a comparison with other studies in literature as well as to find out how we can make labor awareness in our females. Design: Quasi experimental study. Settings: It was carried out in two hospitals in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia from 1 January, 2011 up to 31 December, 2011. One hundred Saudi women who fulfilled criterion were included in the study. They were randomized and the results seen. Results: There was a significant difference in postpartum fatigue within 60 min and 24 h in two groups as P = 0.001, P < 0.001 respectively. There was a significant difference of APGAR score of newborn in both groups, i.e., P < 0.001. Conclusion: It is concluded that physiological pushing technique has a better outcome with regard to postpartum maternal fatigue and neonatal APGAR score when compared to directed pushing during the second stage of labor.
  3,471 356 3
Feedback
Subscribe