Saudi Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

: 2017  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-

Zika virus: An emerging pathogen

Abdulaziz A Al-Quorain 
 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Abdulaziz A Al-Quorain
P. O. Box 40001, Al-Khobar 31952
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

How to cite this article:
Al-Quorain AA. Zika virus: An emerging pathogen.Saudi J Med Med Sci 2017;5:1-1

How to cite this URL:
Al-Quorain AA. Zika virus: An emerging pathogen. Saudi J Med Med Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Jan 20 ];5:1-1
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Full Text

Zika virus is a flavivirus, transmitted by mosquitoes, mainly Aedes Aegypti. The virus was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, Africa with the first human infections reported in 1952 in Uganda, Tanzania, and Nigeria.[1],[2],[3]

The geographic spread of the Zika virus has involved more than 52 countries worldwide.[4],[5] In 2014, it reached the Western Hemisphere and was detected in Brazil in 2015.[6] In 2016, the Zika virus infection reached the United States and currently, it has been reported in North, Central and South America, Micronesia, the Caribbean and some Southeast Asian countries.[7],[8],[9]

The transmission of the Zika virus to humans can occur through various modes, including blood transfusion, laboratory exposure, sexual contact, maternal-fetal transmission, and mosquitoes.[10],[11]

The clinical presentation is usually asymptomatic in the majority of cases. However, when symptoms are present, they are usually mild and can include low-grade fever, arthralgia, rash, and conjunctivitis.[12] Severe clinical manifestations, including microcephaly, have been described in infants and Guillain-Barre syndrome has been reported as a neurological complication.[13],[14] Although the Zika virus infection is mild in more than 80% of cases, further multicenter studies are required to improve the management of the infection.

In this issue, Professor Adel Al-Afaleq reviews the pathogenesis, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, management, and prevention of this virus.


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