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CASE REPORT
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 156-159

A rare case of pyonephrosis in an infant induced by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae


Department of Urology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Ossamah Saleh Alsowayan
Department of Urology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, PO Box 40086, Al Khobar 31952
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_91_18

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Pyonephrosis is a rare condition in both adult and pediatric population. Here, the author presents a rare case of pyonephrosis induced by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a 12-month-old girl presenting with a picture of urosepsis. The patient presented with febrile urinary tract infection and was unresponsive to intravenous meropenem. Physical examination revealed huge, firm and irregular right renal swelling. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging revealed severely hydronephrotic right kidney, and laboratory investigations showed elevated C-reactive protein level (22.9 mg/dl). Emergency percutaneous nephrostomy tube was inserted, pus was drained (20 ml) and intravenous vancomycin and amikacin were started. Her general condition improved, and urine culture was negative. Functional assessment with dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan revealed that the split renal function was 5% on the right and 95% on the left side, and the bladder outline was smooth with no reflux in voiding cystourethrogram. A right nephrectomy was done a week later using the anterior subcostal approach. The postoperative course was smooth. Histopathological examination was diagnostic for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. No adverse events were reported in the follow-up over 12 months. It can be concluded that a high degree of suspicion, rapid initiation of appropriate antibiotics and drainage of pus are crucial in the management of pyonephrosis.


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