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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 65

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication12-Apr-2019

Correspondence Address:
Abdulaziz A Al-Quorain
College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_111_19

PMID: 31080384

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How to cite this article:
Al-Quorain AA. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Saudi J Med Med Sci 2019;7:65

How to cite this URL:
Al-Quorain AA. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Saudi J Med Med Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 May 28];7:65. Available from: http://www.sjmms.net/text.asp?2019/7/2/65/256027

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disorder caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota. The disease is characterized by acute and chronic inflammatory changes in the small and large bowels; in some cases, it may affect both. Various immune-mediated and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder in genetically susceptible persons. The exact etiology of IBD is yet unknown.[1],[2],[3],[4] Recently, various studies revealed that genetic factors play a central role in the development of this disease. Genome-wide association studies have significantly advanced our understanding of the genetic susceptibility in IBD. Genomic studies have revealed numerous risks conferring loci in patients with IBD.[5] The prevalence of IBD is increasing worldwide, including in the Middle Eastern countries and Saudi Arabia.[6],[7],[8]

Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) or complications of IBD are often encountered in 25%–40% of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.[9] EIMs can affect various organs, and their symptoms may occur even before the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. The skin, eyes, liver and joints are considered the most commonly involved sites of manifestations, whereas other organs such as lungs, kidneys and pancreas are rarely involved. Some EIMs such as arthritis, erythema nodosum and aphthous ulcers are associated with disease activity.[10],[11],[12] Early involvement of specialists in the management of affected organs is advised.

In the current issue, Dr. Vito Annese discusses and reviews the prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis and management of EIMs in IBD.

  References Top

Abraham C, Cho JH. Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 2009;361:2066-78.  Back to cited text no. 1
Burisch J, Munkholm P. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2013;29:357-62.  Back to cited text no. 2
Leone V, Chang EB, Devkota S. Diet, microbes, and host genetics: The perfect storm in inflammatory bowel diseases. J Gastroenterol 2013;48:315-21.  Back to cited text no. 3
Fiocchi C. Inflammatory bowel disease: Etiology and pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 1998;115:182-205.  Back to cited text no. 4
Cho JH. The genetics and immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nat Rev Immunol 2008;8:458-66.  Back to cited text no. 5
Fadda MA, Peedikayil MC, Kagevi I, Kahtani KA, Ben AA, Al HI, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease in Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based clinical study of 312 patients. Ann Saudi Med 2012;32:276-82.  Back to cited text no. 6
Ghosh S, Almadi MA. Inflammatory bowel disease: A global disease. Saudi J Gastroenterol 2013;19:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Aljebreen AM, Alharbi OR, Azzam NA, Almalki AS, Alswat KA, Almadi MA. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Gastroenterol 2014;20:162-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Levine JS, Burakoff R. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 2011;7:235-41.  Back to cited text no. 9
Vavricka SR, Schoepfer A, Scharl M, Lakatos PL, Navarini A, Rogler G. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2015;21:1982-92.  Back to cited text no. 10
Ferreira SD, Oliveira BB, Morsoletto AM, Martinelli AL, Troncon LE. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical aspects and pathogenesis. J Gastroenterol Dig Dis 2018;3:4-11.  Back to cited text no. 11
Bernstein CN, Blanchard JF, Rawsthorne P, Yu N. The prevalence of extraintestinal diseases in inflammatory bowel disease: A population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:1116-22.  Back to cited text no. 12


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