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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 40-43

The evaluation of relationship between abo blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction in durres population


1 Department of Cardiology, Internal Medicine, Regional Hospital, Durres, Albania
2 Department of Cardiology, Institute of Public Health, Tirane, Albania, Albania

Date of Web Publication20-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Eliverta Zera
Department of Cardiology, Regional Hospital of Durres, L. 8. Rr A Goga
Albania
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DOI: 10.4103/1658-631X.149672

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in many developing and developed countries. An association between ABO blood groups (BGs) and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been known for many years, although there have not been enough surveys to prove it. However, it is not yet known how significant the association between the ABO BGs and CAD is in the clinical practice.
Aim: The aim was to investigate a possible association of ABO (BGs) and CV risk factors among the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Durres population.
Materials and Methods: This transversal prospective study included 239 patients with AMI admitted to in the Cardiology Department, Regional Hospital of Durres, Albania between January 2012 and August 2013. In patients with AMI were collected data on risk factors such as smoking, age, gender, hypertension (HTN) and blood lipids, diabetes, obesity, family history and previous myocardial infarction(MI). Participants provided blood samples for cholesterol, glucose (fasting blood sugar) and BGs. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained immediately after admission. The location and complication of AMI were assessed. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 16 and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:
In the present study of 239 patients, 32.6% (78) had BG O, 38,1% (91) had BG A, 17.2%(41) had BG B and 12.1%(29) had BG AB. Of the total of 239, 52,3% (125) were smoker, 66,9% (160) were hypertensive, 51.4% (123) were obese, 30.5% (73) had diabetes mellitus (DM), 71,1% (170) had high serum cholesterol level, 37.6% (90) had positive family history and mean age was 66.1 ΁ 21 years. In individuals the incidence of AMI was higher in those with BG A than in those with other BG P 0.001. AMI was less frequent in BG AB. The frequency of CV risk factors was similar in patients with different BGs. However, the patients with BG A had a higher incidence of high serum cholesterol level, diabetes and HTN than those with the other BGs but not a statistically significant difference P > 0.05. There were no significant differences between BGs in location of AMI. No significant differences were found between BGs and complications in acute myocardial infarction.
Conclusions: Blood group A is related to the higher incidence of AMI, high serum cholesterol level, HTN and DM, while the results did not provide convincing evidence that any BGs were strongly associated with HTN, diabetes and location of MI. Association of ABO BGs distribution with CV risk factors, CAD and MI needs to be clarified with multicenter, prospective and large-scale studies.

  Abstract in Arabic 

ملخص البحث:
هدفت هذه الدراسة لاستقصاء وجود ارتباط محتمل بين فصيلة الدم OBA وعوامل الخطورة لدى المرضى المصابين بالذبحة القلبية الحادة. شملت هذه الدراسة المستقبلية 32 مريضًا بالذبحة القلبية الحادة والذين أدخلوا قسم أمراض القلب بمستشفى دوريس بالبانيا بين يناير 2102 وأغسطس 3102. تم جمع بيانات عوامل الخطورة لهؤلاء كالتدخين, العمر، الجنس، ارتفاع ضغط الدم، دهنيات الدم، السكري، السمنة، التاريخ الأسري للذبحة القلبية. أثبتت الدراسة أن حدوث الذبحة القلبية مع فصيلة الدم A كان أعلى منه لدى أولئك المصابين من فصائل الدم الأخرى (100.0<p).




Keywords: Blood group, myocardial infarction, risk factors


How to cite this article:
Zera E, Xinxo S, Hatellari A. The evaluation of relationship between abo blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction in durres population. Saudi J Med Med Sci 2015;3:40-3

How to cite this URL:
Zera E, Xinxo S, Hatellari A. The evaluation of relationship between abo blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction in durres population. Saudi J Med Med Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Sep 17];3:40-3. Available from: http://www.sjmms.net/text.asp?2015/3/1/40/149672


  Introduction Top


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in many developing and developed countries [1] Different risk factors affect development of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, age, sex, smoking, and family history are considered as major risk factors. [2] These factors are believed to be valid in prediction and prevention of coronary disease. The recent studies have revealed that ABO blood group particularly non-O BGs is associated with the risk of CVD. [3],[4],[5] There is a proven association between ABO BGs and diseases that leads to a shift of the coagulation balance toward thrombus formation. This has been demonstrated in a number of studies of venous thrombosis in non-OO BG carriers with an increased level of von Willebrand's factor acting as a mediator of enhanced platelet adhesion and aggregation. [6],[7] However, studies on arterial disease and myocardial infarction (MI) have yielded contradictory results, although an association of these processes with the ABO system is physiologically justified because the carbohydrate erythrocyte antigens are also found on platelets and vascular endothelium. Results of a meta-analysis by Clark and Wu, published in March 2011, indicate a very low impact of ABO BGs on the risk of MI. [8] On the other side, Framingham study results and several others report have suggested that in A BG subjects the incidence of ischemic disease may be higher than other BGs. [9],[10] Some of previous studies show no significant differences between the frequency of BGs and coronary artery events. [11] The aim of our study was to investigate a possible association on the distribution of ABO BGs cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as HTN, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypercholesterolemia among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients in Durres population.


  Materials and METHODS Top


This transversal study included 239 patients with AMI admitted to in the Cardiology Department, Regional Hospital of Durres, Albania between January 2012 and August 2013. In patients with AMI data were collected on risk factors such as smoking, age, gender, HTN and blood lipids, diabetes, obesity, family history, previous MI. Participants provided blood samples for cholesterol, glucose (fasting blood sugar, and BGs. AMI was defined as the presence of typical chest pain lasting for >30 minutes; ST elevation of >0.1 mV or 1 minute in at least two continuous leads on the baseline. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained immediately after admission. The location and complication of AMI were assessed. Data was analyzed on SPPS version 16 and a P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


  Results Top


In the present study of 239 points with AMI, 32.6% (78) had BG O, 38,1% (91) had BG A, 17.2% (41) had BG B and 12.1% (29) had BG AB. Of the total of 239, 52,3% (125) were smokers, 66.9% (160) were hypertensive, 51.4% (123) were obese, 30.5% (73) had DM,71,1% (170) had high serum cholesterol level,37.6 % (90) had positive family history and mean age was 66.1 ± 21 years. In individuals the incidence of AMI was higher in those with BG A than in those with other BGs (P <0.001). AMI was less frequent in BG AB. The frequency of CV risk factors was similar in patients with different BGs. However, the patients with BG A had a higher incidence of high serum cholesterol level, diabetes and HTN than those with the other BGs, but not statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between BGs in location of AMI. No significant differences were found between BGs and complications (include exitus) in AMI [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of AMI, CV major risk factors, location, complications regarding to their ABO blood groups

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  Discussion Top


The correlation between ABO BGs and development of atherosclerosis remains unclear despite the fact that some studies are addressing this topic. [3],[11],[12] We attempted to evaluate the influence of ABO BGs in a group patients with AMI in whom major coronary risk factors were known. This study is the first to investigate the association of ABO BGs and risk factors in the patients with AMI in Durres, Albania. Some of the previous studies showed no significant differences between the frequency of BGs and coronary artery events [11] on the other side, some showed excess of CAD in BG A and its deficit in BG O. [10],[13],[14] The results of the present study seem to claim significant links between BG phenotype as a risk factor for CAD. We found in our study that the prevalence of CHD in BG A is markedly higher than in all other ABO BGs. The frequency of CV risk factors was similar in patients with different BGs. There were no significant differences between BGs in a location of AMI. No significant differences were found between BGs, and complications including death in AMI although in patients with B BG were higher (56.1%). Our results are similar with different results from Whincup et al.,[10] European countries, [14],[15],[16] and the United States. [17] There is much to be done to understand the role of ABO and glycobiology in CVD. Future studies will show many advances in the basic biology, mechanistic actions, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic possibilities in humans. Thus, future studies will clarify the association between ABO BGs and CV events and risks to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for these associations, are not only of basic scientific interest but also of translational clinical importance.


  Conclusions Top


Blood group A is related to the higher incidence of AMI, high serum cholesterol level, HTN and DM, while the results did not provide convincing evidence that any BGs were strongly associated with HTN, diabetes and the location of MI. Association of ABO BGs distribution with CV risk factors, CAD and MI needs to be clarified with multicenter, prospective and large-scale studies.

 
  References Top

1.
Cardiovascular Diseases, Protection and Treatment; 68-78. Ma Hongbao, Cherng Shen. 40 NP_745062.pro. Consensus m. World Health Stat Q Vol. 46 No:2, 1993.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
2 7th Bethesda Conference. Matching the intensity of risk factor management with the hazard for coronary disease events. September 14-15, 1995. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:957-1047.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Erikssen J, Thaulow E, Stormorken H, Brendemoen O, Hellem A. ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease (CHD). A study in subjects with severe and latent CHD. Thromb Haemost 1980;43:137-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nydegger UE, Wuillemin WA, Julmy F, Meyer BJ, Carrel TP. Association of ABO histo-blood group B allele with myocardial infarction. Eur J Immunogenet 2003;30:201-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Platt D, Mühlberg W, Kiehl L, Schmitt-Rüth R. ABO blood group system, age, sex, risk factors and cardiac infarction. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1985;4:241-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Wu O, Bayoumi N, Vickers MA, Clark P. ABO(H) blood groups and vascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost 2008;6:62-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jukic I, Bingulac-Popovic J, Dogic V, Babic I, Culej J, Tomicic M, et al. ABO blood groups and genetic risk factors for thrombosis in Croatian population. Croat Med J 2009;50:550-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Clark P, Wu O. ABO blood groups and thrombosis: A causal association, but is there value in screening? Future Cardiol 2011;7:191-201.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Garrison RJ, Havlik RJ, Harris RB, Feinleib M, Kannel WB, Padgett SJ. ABO blood group and cardiovacular disease: The Framingham study. Atherosclerosis 1976;25:311-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Whincup PH, Cook DG, Phillips AN, Shaper AG. ABO blood group and ischaemic heart disease in British men. BMJ 1990;300:1679-82.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Amirzadegan A, Salarifar M, Sadeghian S, Davoodi G, Darabian C, Goodarzynejad H. Correlation between ABO blood groups, major risk factors, and coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol 2006;110:256-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Biancari F, Satta J, Pokela R, Juvonen T. ABO blood group distribution and severity of coronary artery disease among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery in Northern Finland. Thromb Res 2002;108:195-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Akhund IA, Alvi IA, Ansari AK, Mughal MA, Akhund AA. A study of relationship of ABO blood groups with myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2001;13:25-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Tarján Z, Tonelli M, Duba J, Zorándi A. Correlation between ABO and Rh blood groups, serum cholesterol and ischemic heart disease in patients undergoing coronarography. Orv Hetil 1995;136:767-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Fox MH, Webber LS, Thurmon TF, Berenson GS. ABO blood group associations with cardiovascular risk factor variables. II. Blood pressure, obesity, and their anthropometric covariables. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Hum Biol 1986;58:549-84.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Meade TW, Cooper JA, Stirling Y, Howarth DJ, Ruddock V, Miller GJ. Factor VIII, ABO blood group and the incidence of ischaemic heart disease. Br J Haematol 1994;88:601-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Ellison RC, Zhang Y, Myers RH, Swanson JL, Higgins M, Eckfeldt J. Lewis blood group phenotype as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (the NHLBI Family Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 1999;83:345-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
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